Like the liability for complicity, the acquittal or non-prosecution of part of the conspiracy does not absolve a co-conspirator of criminal liability in many states (Tex). Penal Code, 2011). In addition, a co-conspirator does not need to know all the other conspirators to be brought to justice as a member of the conspiracy (Neb). Rev. Ann. Stat., 2011). As long as the conspiracy accused knows that there are other conspirators, Mens rea is present for conspiracy. As the Model Criminal Code states: “[i]f a person guilty of conspiracy… knows that a person with whom he has conspired to commit a crime has conspired with another person or person to commit the same crime, he is guilty of conspiring with that other person or person, whether or not he knows his identity” (Model Criminal Code No. 5.03, para.
2). Large-scale conspiracies, such as smuggling plots or illegal firearms, can lead each member to share criminal responsibility for conspiracy and any separate conspiracy transaction. It is also an option for prosecutors, in laying conspiracy charges, to charge all members of the conspiracy (although the existence of all members may be mentioned in an indictment). Such unauthed conspirators are often found when the identities or locations of members of a conspiracy are unknown or when the charge deals only with a person identified as the conspirators. This is common practice when the purpose of the charge is an elected official or an organized crime chief and the co-conspirators are persons of low or no importance. Moreover, President Richard Nixon was appointed by the Special Prosecutor of Watergate as an unassured co-conspirator, which led to his final resignation. In response to the increase in organized crime, the federal government passed the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO) (18 U.S.C. RICO provides extensive criminal penalties and civil action in fundamental justice for organized crime and includes all criminal offences under national or federal law. Although RICO initially turned to demanding criminal enterprises such as credit sharks, mafia and gambling (Blakey, G.
R., 2011), its modern application is much broader and includes a lot of economic crime and small-age conspiracy.